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Online Reference: Writing and Presenting

Information to Include

The following examples give a very brief overview of format. For more in-depth reference, refer to the links under  Interdisciplinary Style.

Depending on the style you use and the format of your source, citation structure will vary. Generally, citations will include some of the following information:

  • Author(s)
  • Article title
  • Name of publication
  • Publication volume/number
  • Publisher name and city
  • Date of publication
  • Page range
  • Database
  • Date of access
  • Web address

Modern Language Association (MLA) Style

From the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.)


MLA no longer requires the web addresses to be included in MLA citations, however your professor may still require the use of URL's. When included, web addresses should appear in angle brackets after the date of access. <http://www.example.com/>

When citing an article from an online scholarly journal, use the same format as a print article. The medium is Web plus the date of access. The the article comes from an online-only scholarly journal, use the abbreviation n. pag. in place of the page range.

Articles that come from a database should include the name of the database in the citation.

Book
Author(s). Title. Publication City: Publisher, Date. Medium.

Journal
Author(s). "Article Title." Journal Title Volume.Number (Date): Page(s). Medium.


Kruger, Paul. Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley, 2006. Print.

Salcido, Rachael E. "Rough Seas Ahead: Confronting Challenges to Jump-Start Wave Energy." Environmental Law Fall 2009: 1073-1108. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 3 Mar. 2016.

Solvason, H. B., et al. "Psychological Versus Biological Clinical Interpretation: A Patient with Prion Disease." The American Journal of Psychiatry. 159.4 (2002): 528-37. Print.

Kim, Ji-hoon, et al. "Galaxy Formation with Self-Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes. I: Feedback-Regulated Star Formation and Black Hole Growth." Astrophys.J.738:54,2011. 738.1 (2011): n. pag. SciTech Connect. Web. 3 Mar. 2016. <http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1028672>

American Psychological Association (APA) Style

From the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.)


APA style recommends using  a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) when available. Journals that assign DOI's usually include them somewhere on the first page of the article or in the citation.

When citing articles that do not have a DOI, use the URL for the journal home page instead.

Articles that come from a database do not need to include the database information.

Book
Author(s). (Date). Title. Publication City: Publisher.

Journal
Author(s). (Date). Article Title. Journal Title, Volume(Number), Page(s). Retrieved from URL


Kruger, P. (2006). Alternative energy resources: The quest for sustainable energy. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley.

Salcido, R. E. (2009, Fall). Rough seas ahead: confronting challenges to jump-start wave energy. Environmental Law, 39(4), 1073-1108. Retrieved from http://law.lclark.edu/law_reviews/environmental_law/

Solvason, H. B., Harris, B., Zeifert, P., Flores, B. H., & Hayward, C. (2002). Psychological versus biological clinical interpretation: a patient with prion disease. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(4), 528-37.

Kim, J., Wise J., Alvarez, M. A., & Abel, T. (2011). Galaxy formation with self-consistently modeled stars and massive black holes. I: Feedback-regulated star formation and black hole growth. Astrophys.J.738:54,2011, 738(1), doi:10.1088/0004-637X/738/1/54

Chicago

From the Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.)


The Chicago Manual of Style has two different citation formats: the Author-Date format, using inline citations, and the Notes and Bibliography format, which uses footnote or endnote citations. The Notes and Bibliography format is normally used in literature, history, and the arts. The Author-Date format is favored in the physical, natural, and social sciences.

Online books and periodicals are cited in the same format as print with the DOI or URL added at the end. DOI numbers are prefered.

Access dates are not required. When used, they are located just before the DOI or URL.

• Author-Date format

Book
Author(s). Date. Title. Publication City: Publisher.

Journal
Author(s). Date. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume(Number): Page(s). URL


• Notes and Bibliography format

Book
Author(s). Title. Publication City: Publisher, Date.

Journal
Author(s). "Article Title." Journal Title Volume.Number (Date): Page(s). URL


Examples below are given in Author-Date format. 

Kruger, Paul. 2006. Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley.

Salcido, R. E. 2009. "Rough Seas Ahead: Confronting Challenges to Jump-Start Wave Energy." Environmental Law 39(4): 1073-1108. http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA217847380&v=2.1&u=nm_a_nmimt&it=r&p=EAIM&sw=w&asid=b81e44c895c81583e986df942b98ff93

Solvason H. B., Harris B., Zeifert P., Flores B. H., and Hayward C. 2002. "Psychological Versus Biological Clinical Interpretation: A Patient with Prion Disease." The American Journal of Psychiatry 159(4): 528-37.

Kim, J., Wise J., Alvarez, M. A., and Abel, T. 2011. "Galaxy Formation with Self-Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes. I: Feedback-Regulated Star Formation and Black Hole Growth." Astrophys.J.738:54,2011 738(1): doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/738/1/54.

Turabian

From Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.)


Turabian style is essentially the same as Chicago style, but with some modifications with student writers in mind.

When citing online sources, include the access date and URL. DOI numbers, when available, are preferred and should be formated as and URL with http://dx.doi.org/ at the beginning.

Sources that are available both electronically and in print should be listed in the format that was used. Sources that are found in a database may give the name of the database in place of the URL.

• Author-Date format

Book
Author(s). Date. Title. Publication City: Publisher.

Journal
Author(s). Date. Article Title. Journal Title Volume, no. Number: Page(s). URL (accessed Date).


•Notes and Bibliography format

Book
Author(s). Title. Publication City: Publisher, Date.

Journal
Author(s). "Article Title." Journal Title Volume, no. Number (Date): Page(s). Accessed Date. URL.


Examples below are given in the Notes and Bibliography format.

Kruger, Paul. Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley, 2006.

Salcido, R. E. "Rough Seas Ahead: Confronting Challenges to Jump-Start Wave Energy." Environmental Law 39, no. 4 (Fall 2009): 1073-1108. Accessed March 3, 2016. Expanded Academic ASAP.

Solvason H. B., Harris B., Zeifert P., Flores B. H., and Hayward C. "Psychological Versus Biological Clinical Interpretation: A Patient with Prion Disease." The American Journal of Psychiatry 159, no. 4 (April 2002): 528-37.

Kim, J., Wise J., Alvarez, M. A., and Abel, T. "Galaxy Formation with Self-Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes. I: Feedback-Regulated Star Formation and Black Hole Growth." Astrophys.J.738:54,2011 738, no. 1 (2011): Accessed March 3, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/738/1/54.

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