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PHIL 342 (ChoGlueck)

Research guide with information and tips supporting the coursework in Christopher ChoGlueck's PHIL 342 class

APA Reference List Basics

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

Basic Rules
  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
  • Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work.
  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
  • For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
  • Present the journal title in full.
  • Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title.
    • For example: ReCALL not RECALL or Knowledge Management Research & Practice not Knowledge Management Research and Practice.
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
  • When referring to books, chapters, articles, or webpages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns.
  • Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.

Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format. For more information, see page 193 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., 2nd printing.

Courtesy of Purdue OWL

Citation Styles and Resources: American Psychological Association (APA)

Skeen Library has a copy of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for library use only. We also provide digital access to The Concise APA Handbook. See below for other useful links.


Here are some other useful links:

Citation Management Tools & Resources

This is the web-based version of EndNote Desktop. Register/signup at before downloading the desktop version. Click here for the EndNote online Quick Reference Guide.

Register/signup at before downloading the desktop version! This software is offered by NMT's ITC Department. To receive an EndNote installer and serial number, email the ITC help desk.

A free reference management and academic social network, Mendeley can help you organize your research, collaborate with others online, and discover the latest research. Features include the ability to automatically generate bibliographies, import papers from other research software, discover relevant papers based on what you're reading, online access to your papers, and apps for iOS and Android.

A free, open-source citation management tool that is available as a standalone program or an extension in Chrome and Firefox. Like other reference management tools, Zotero offers plugins for Microsoft Word and Open Office so you can insert citations as you write.

Find detailed guides to APA, Chicago, and MLA citation styles.

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